Reference Topics 4-1

Egyptian calculator:
http://www.isomedia.com/homes/mjohns/calc.htm

Roman numeral calculator:
http://www.novaroma.org/via_romana/numbers.html

Cuneiform calculator:
http://it.stlawu.edu/~dmelvill/mesomath/calculator/scalc.html

Links to information on numeration systems:
http://mathforum.org/alejandre/numerals.htmlSee the whole entry

Section 4.5: History of Calculating Devices

4.5 Outline

  1. First calculating tool
  2. Early calculating devices
    1. abacus
    2. Napier’s rods
    3. slide rule
  3. Mechanical calculators
    1. Pascal’s calculator
    2. Babbage’s calculating machine
  4. Hand-held calculators
  5. First computers
    1. ENIAC
    2. UNIVAC I
  6. Present-day computers
    1. Cray supercomputer
    2. Tianhe-2 supercomputer
    3. minicomputers
    4. history of the internet
    5. personal computers
See the whole entry

Section 1.3: Scientific Notation and Estimation

1.3 Outline

  1. Exponential notation (see below)
    1. base
    2. exponent
    3. power or exponential
    4. extended order of operations
  2. Scientific notation (see below)
  3. Calculators
    1. arithmetic logic
    2. algebraic logic
    3. RPN logic
    4. floating-point form
  4. Estimation
  5. Laws of exponents (see below)
    1. addition law
    2. multiplication law
    3. subtractive law
See the whole entry