## 17.3 Outline

- Definition of apportionment
- The apportionment process
- upper quota
- lower quota
- standard divisor
- standard quota
- quota rule

- Adams’ plan
- definition
- modified divisor
- modified quota

- Jefferson’s plan
- Hamilton’s plan
- Webster’s plan
- Hungtington-Hill plan
- arithmetic mean
- geometric mean

- Summary of apportionment methods

## 17.3 Essential Ideas

To find the **standard divisor** divide the total population by the shares (or number of representatives). To find the **standard quota** divide the total population by the standard divisor.

**The Quota Rule**

The number assigned to each represented unit must be either the standard quota rounded down to the nearest integer, or the standard quota rounded up to the **nearest integer**.

**Adams’ Plan
**

Any standard quota with a decimal portion must be **rounded up **to the next whole number. Use a *modified divisor* to come up with the appropriate number of seats.

**Jefferson’s Plan
**

Any standard quota with a decimal portion must be **rounded down **to the next lower whole number. Use a *modified divisor* to come up with the appropriate number of seats.

**Hamilton’s Plan
**

The standard quotas are **rounded down**, but each must be at least one. Give additional seats, one at a time, until no seats are left. These are given, in order, to the states with the largest fractional parts of their standard quotas.

**Webster’s Plan
**

The standard quotas are **rounded to the nearest** whole number using the *arithmetic mean*. Use a *modified divisor* to come up with the appropriate number of seats.

**Huntington-Hill’s (HH) Plan
**

The standard quotas are **rounded to the nearest** whole number using the *geometric mean*. Use a *modified divisor* to come up with the appropriate number of seats.