Laptop A small
A type of high-quality printer that produces almost typeset-quality
contraposition A conditional may always be replaced
by its contrapositive without having its truth value affected.
Law of detachment
Same as direct reasoning.
Law of square
of the excluded middle Every simple statement is
either true or false.
Laws of exponents
There are 5 laws of exponents.
bmbn = bm+n
Multiplication law (bn)m
Subtraction law bm/bn
Distributive laws (ab)m
Laws of logarithms
If A, B, and b are positive numbers,
p any real number, and b is not equal to 1,
logb(AB) = logbA
logb(A/B) = logbA -
Multiplication law logbAp
l.c.d. An abbreviation for least
l.c.m. An abbreviation
for least common multiple.
common denominator (l.c.d.) The smallest number
that is exactly divisible by each of the given numbers.
common multiple (l.c.m.) The smallest number that
each of a given set of numbers divides into.
line A line y = mx + bso that the sum of the squares of the vertical
distances of the data points from this line will be as small
method A method based on the principle that the
best prediction of a quantity that can be deduced from a
set of measurements or observations is that for which the
sum of the squares of the deviations of the observed values
(from predictions) is a minimum.
Leg One of the two
sides of a right triangle that are not the hypotenuse.
Length A measurement
of an object from end to end.
If a is to the left of b on a number line, then a is less
than b, a < B.
Formally, a < b if and only if b > a.
Less than or equal to
LET A BASIC command
that assigns a value to a variable.
Terms that differ only in their numerical coefficients.
Also called similar terms.
Limit The formal
definition of a limit is beyond the scope of this course.
Intuitively, it is the tendency of a function to approach
some value as its variable approaches a given value.
a sequence The formal definition of a limit of a
sequence is beyond the scope of this course. Intuitively,
it is an accumulation point such that there are an infinite
number of terms of the sequence arbitrarily close to the
of integration See Integral.
Line In mathematics,
it is an undefined term. It is a curve that is straight,
so it is sometimes referred to as a straight line. It extends
in both directions, is considered one-dimensional, so it
has no thickness.
Line graph See
Line of credit
A preapproved credit limit on a credit account. The
maximum amount of credit to be extended to a borrower. That
is, it is a promise by a lender to extend credit up to some
Line of symmetry
A line with the proprty that for a given curve, any
point P on the curve has a corresponding point Q (called
the reflection point of P) so that the perpendicular bisector
of the line passing through P and Q is on the line of symmetry.
A part of a line between two points on the line.
(1) A first-degree polynomial.
(2) Pertaining to a line. In two variables, a set of points
satisfying the equation
Ax + By + C = 0.
combination method See Addition method.
correlation coefficient A measure to determine whether
there is a statistically significant linear relationship
between two variables.
An equation of the form ax + b = 0 (one variable)
or Ax + By + C = 0 (two variables).
A first-degree equation with one or two variables.
For example, x + 5 = 0 and are linear. An equation
is linear in a certain variable if it is first-degree in
For example, x + y2 = 0 is linear
in x, but not y.
A function whose equation can be written in the form f (x)
= mx + b .
A first-degree inequality with one or two variables.
A first-degree polynomial.
A type of problem that seeks to maximize or minimize a function
called the objective function subject to a set of restrictions
(linear inequalities) called constraints.
A linear expression in two variables, c1x
+ c2y,defined over a convex set S whose sides
are line segments, takes on its maximum value at a corner
point of S and its minimum value at a corner point of S.
If S is unbounded, there may or may not be an optimum value,
but if there is, then it must occur at a corner point.
A system of equations, each of which is first-degree.
Liter The basic
unit of capacity in the metric system. It is the capacity
of 1 cubic decimeter.
An equation with more than one variable.
LOAD A BASIC program
command that copies a program into a usable portion of a
For A > 0, b > 0, (b not equal to 1)
x = logbA means
bx = A
x is called the logarithm andA is called the argument.
equation An equation for which there is a logarithm
on one or both sides.
function f (x) = logbx, b
> 0, (b not equal to 0), x > 0
scale A scale in which logarithms are used to make
data more manageable by expanding small variations and compressing
Logic The science
of correct reasoning.
The statement that follows logically as a consequence of
the hypotheses of a theorem
Two statements are logically equivalent if they
have the same truth values.
An invalid form of reasoning.
of both sides theorem
If A, B, and b are positive real numbers with b not
equal to one, then
logbA = logbB is equivalent to A =
LOGO A computer language used
in drawing geometrical designs. It is also useful in learning
a programming language.
Loop A principle
of computer programming that directs a computer to perform
the same operation over and over a specified number of times.
common denominator For two or more fractions, the
smallest common multiple of the denominators. It is the
same as the lowest common multiple.
A financial problem that deals with a single sum of money,
called a lump sum. Contrast with a periodic payment problem.
In apportionment, the result of a quota found by rounding